Joan of Arc (c.1412-1431) was nicknamed 'The Maid of Orléans' and claimed divine guidance whilst she led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War. Later she was tried by a pro-English bishop and burned at the stake as a heretic aged only 19. Her remains were cast into the Seine. Twenty-five years later an Inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, threw out the charges, pronounced her innocent and declared her a martyr. Joan of Arc was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920.